As the nation is witnessing slow down due to COVID-19, experts and students alike are discussing whether syllabus for JEE Main 2021 should be reduced or not. MHRD announced 30% reduction in CBSE class XI and XII syllabus on July 7, 2020. This most likely can impact the syllabus of JEE Main 2021.
JEE Main 2021 aspirants are demanding a reduction in the syllabus for the online entrance test. Though the situation is yet not clear, and things will be clarified by the NTA at desired time, a possibility of reduction in syllabus is speculated.
As per experts' opinions, with the reduction in time for preparation, NTA may consider the point of reducing JEE Main 2021 Syllabus. Meanwhile, candidates are expected to work on their thought process and prepare for the exam. No doubt a reduction in syllabus will also reduce the burden upon students’ shoulders, but aspirants are advised to prepare as they used to do earlier. With CBSE’s step of syllabus reduction for class XI and XII, the chances of reduction in JEE Main syllabus for the next session have increased.
|Unit 1: Sets, relations and functions||Sets and their representation, Union, intersection, and complement of sets and their algebraic properties, Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions; One-one, into and onto functions, the composition of functions.|
|Unit 2: Complex numbers and quadratic equations||Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number systems and their solutions. The relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, the formation of quadratic equations with given roots.|
|Unit 3: Matrices and determinant||Matrices, Algebra of matrices, Types of matrices, Determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, Evaluation of determinants, Area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.|
|Unit 4: Permutations and combinations||Fundamental principle of counting, Permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), Simple applications.|
|Unit 5: Mathematical induction||Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications|
|Unit 6: Binomial theorem and its simple applications||Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, General term and middle term, Properties of Binomial coefficients and Simple applications|
|Unit 7: Sequences and series||Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, Insertion of arithmetic, Geometric means between two given numbers, Relation between A.M. and G.M. sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2, Sn3 and Arithmetic – Geometric progression|
|UNIT 8: Limit, continuity and differentiability||Real – valued functions, Algebra of functions,Polynomials, Rational, Trigonometric, Logarithmic and exponential functions, Inverse functions Graphs of simple functions Limits, continuity and differentiability, Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions Differentiation of trigonometric, Inverse trigonometric, Logarithmic, Exponential, Composite and implicit functions, Derivatives of order upto two, Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic – increasing and decreasing functions,, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable and Tangents and norma|
|Unit 9: Integral calculus||Evaluation of simple integrals of the type Integral as limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Properties of definite integrals, Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form Evaluation of simple integrals of the type Integral as limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Properties of definite integrals, Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.|
|Unit 10: Differential equations||Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations,The solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type: dy/dx+p(x)y=q(x)|
|Unit 11: Co-ordinate geometry||
Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane, Distance formula, Section formula, Locus and its equation, Translation of axes, Slope of a line, Parallel and perpendicular lines, Intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines: Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Circles, conic sections: Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
|Unit 12: Three dimensional geometry||
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines.
Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation.
Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
|Unit 13: Vector algebra||Vectors and scalars, Addition of vectors, Components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, Scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.|
|Unit 14: Statistics and probability||Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data. Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye’s theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.|
|Unit 15: Trigonometry||Trigonometric identities and equations, Trigonometrical functions, Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties, Heights and Distances|
|Unit 16: Mathematical reasoning||Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if and Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive|
|Unit 1: Physics And Measurement||Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units, Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications|
|Unit 2: Kinematics||Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity, Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector, Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion|
|Unit 3: Laws Of Motion||
Force and Inertia, Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion, Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.
|Unit 4: Work, Energy And Power||
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power.
Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
|Unit 5: Rotational Motion||Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.|
|Unit 6: Gravitation||The universal law of gravitation, Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential, Escape velocity, Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites|
|Unit 7: Properties Of Solids And Liquids||Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity, Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications, Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s principle and its applications, Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension – drops, bubbles and capillary rise, Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat, Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling.|
|Unit 8: Thermodynamics||Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature, Heat, work and internal energy, First law of thermodynamics, Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot engine and its efficiency.|
|Unit 9: Kinetic Theory Of Gases||Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas, Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure, Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro’s number.|
|Unit 10: Oscillations And Waves||
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. – kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound
|Unit 11: Electrostatics||
Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. -Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. The Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field. -Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.
|Unit 12: Current Electricity||Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and non ohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance, Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications, Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge, Potentiometer – principle and its applications|
|Unit 13: Magnetic Effects Of Current And Magnetism||Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loops. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.|
|Unit 14: Electromagnetic Induction And Alternating Currents||Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductance, Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless currentm, AC generator and transformer|
|Unit 15: Electromagnetic Waves||Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X Rays, gamma rays), Applications of e.m. waves.|
|Unit 16: Optics||Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics and wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe . Diffraction due to a single slit, of central maximum, Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.|
|Unit 17: Dual Nature Of Matter And radiation||Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light, Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment.|
|Unit 18: Atoms And Nuclei||Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum, Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones, Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.|
|Unit 19: Electronic Devices||Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR), Transistor as a switch.|
|Unit 20: Communication Systems||Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Band of signals, Band of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).|
|Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts In Chemistry||Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory, Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound, Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis, Laws of chemical combination, Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae, Chemical equations and stoichiometry|
|Unit 2: States Of Matter||
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases, Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates), Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities, Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation
Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), Bragg’s Law and its applications, Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids, Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties
|Unit 3: Atomic Structure||
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations, Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect, Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model, Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions and various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance, shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number, Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals
|Unit 4: Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure||
Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules, Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding:
Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals, Resonance, Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
|Unit 5: Chemical Thermodynamics||
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics – Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution, Second law of thermodynamics, Spontaneity of processes, DS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Dgo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant
|Unit 6: Solutions||Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions, Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure, Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.|
|Unit 7: Equilibrium||
Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid – gas and solid-gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes, Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, the significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, the effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multi stage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
|Unit 8: Redox Reactions And Electrochemistry||
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications
Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement, Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change, Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.
|Unit 9: Chemical Kinetics||Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first-order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation)|
|Unit 10: Surface Chemistry||
Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Colloidal state- distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation, Emulsions and their characteristics
|Unit 11: Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties||Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.|
|Unit 12: General Principles And Processes Of Isolation Of Metals||
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals
|Unit 13: Hydrogen||Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water, Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen as a fuel|
|Unit 14: S – Block Elements (Alkali And Alkaline Earth Metals)||
Group – 1 and 2 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
|Unit 15: P – Block Elements||
Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group
Groupwise study of the p – block elements
Group – 13: Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group – 14: Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.
Group – 15: Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotropic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.
Group – 16: Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur
Group – 17: Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group –18: Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
|UNIT 16: D – And F – Block Elements||
Transition Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first-row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4. Inner Transition Elements: Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanide contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
|Unit 17: Co-Ordination Compounds||
Introduction to coordination compounds, Werner’s theory, ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism, Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
|Unit 18: Environmental Chemistry||
Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil., Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and Stratospheric, Tropospheric pollution – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Greenhouse effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention, Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention, Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.
|Unit 19: Purification And Characterisation Of Organic Compounds||
Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications
Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis
|Unit 20: Some Basic Principles Of Organic Chemistry||
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C –, – C h C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC) Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
|Unit 21: Hydrocarbons||
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions. Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of the functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
|Unit 22: Organic Compounds Containing Halogens||
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.
|Unit 23: Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen||
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
|Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers|
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction, Ethers: Structure, Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group, Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones, Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); the acidity of r – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
|Unit 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen||
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses, Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character, Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
|Unit 25: Polymers||
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization, Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
|UNIT 26: Biomolecules||
Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamine – their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples. Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
|UNIT 28: Principles Related To Practical Chemistry||
Detection of extra elements (N, S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
The chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum. Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform. Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations – Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+. Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO4 2-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
|Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:||
Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.
|Part I||Awareness of persons, places, Buildings, Materials. Objects, Texture related to Architecture and build—environment. Visualising three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional drawings. Visualising. different sides of three-dimensional objects. Analytical Reasoning Mental Ability (Visual, Numerical and Verbal).|
Three dimensional - perception: Understanding and appreciation of scale and proportion of objects, building forms and elements, colour texture, harmony and contrast. Design and drawing of geometrical or abstract shapes and patterns in pencil. Transformation of forms both 2 D and 3 D union, subtraction, rotation, development of surfaces and volumes, Generation of Plan, elevations and 3 D views of objects. Creating two dimensional and three dimensional compositions using given shapes and forms. Sketching of scenes and activities from memory of urbanscape (public space, market, festivals, street scenes, monuments, recreational spaces, ect.), landscape (river fronts, jungles, trees, plants, etc.) and rural life
|Part III (Planning)||General Awareness regarding development issues, government programs/schemes etc., Comprehension, critical thinking and analytical skills, graphs, charts and map reading skills, simple statistics, CBSE class X Social Sciences topics.|